palestinian unrest - 1987 thru?
Even after unprovoked wars on Israel and various peace treaties in which Israel had given up parts of her land, there was considerable Palestinian unrest accompanied by a series of riots (e.g., "Intifada") beginning around 1987. The Palestinians had not taken advantage of any opportunity to help themselves, so Israel began trying to make peace with them. The efforts included the Madrid Peace Conference, the Oslo Peace Agreement, the "Roadmap", the Camp David Accord, and many summits.
In 1993, the Oslo Peace Agreement led to Israel's withdrawal from most of the West Bank and Gaza. During this time, King Hussein of Jordan signed a peace agreement with Israel. Instead of land, Jordan received water from Israel as part of their agreement.
In 2000, President Bill Clinton brought together Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and PLO Chairman, Yasser Arafat, to negotiate a peace agreement. Barak went far beyond any offer that had ever been made to the Palestinians. He was going to cede all of Gaza and give up 96% of the West Bank with the remaining 4% given up in the near future. Also, and independent Palestinian state would be recognized, parts of eastern Jerusalem would serve as the Palestinian capital, and more. Arafat said, "NO." He walked away and started a second Intifada.
Many bus bombings occurred in Jerusalem by the Palestinians during this time. In response, Israel built a security wall that stopped the wave of suicide bombings. After that, Israel's new Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said that if the Palestinians would not negotiate with Israel, then as a peace offering, Israel would unilaterally withdraw from Gaza. Rather than caressing this peace offering, the Palestinians elected Hamas as their representatives. Hamas began arming themselves and shooting rockets into Israel. This has continued until this day.